Between Development and Sustainability: Symbiotic Synergy or Irreconcilable Duality
Keywords:sustainable development, economic growth, 2030 Agenda, sustainability, environment
AbstractAim: This paper studies the concept of sustainable development, which has been overly present in recent times on global arena of debates about issues most pressing to humanity in variety of contexts, political, legal, social and environmental. It has been appropriated by governments and NGOs alike. It is being advocated to promote both, continuous growth and reversal of unsustainable pattern of limitless growth. The aim of this paper is to follow the history of the concepts of development and sustainability, its evolution and current status and question whether future developments in the area of sustainable development are likely to support “development” part of it, through drive to maximum economic growth, increase of financial flows and investments, consumption and production; or whether the “sustainability” part of the agenda, with protection of environment, human rights and climate as a priority, will prevail.
Design / Research methods: The article follows the historical origins and developments of the concepts of development and sustainability, since industrial revolution of the eighteenth century where progress has been linked with economic growth and material advancement. The concept of sustainability on the other hand is closely connected with human relationship with nature, which went through a profound change when people started to make permanent settlements, domesticate animals and farm the land. This paper explains how sustainable development term rose to political prominence following publication of the Brundtland report in 1987 and how subsequent global political initiatives, like Agenda 21, Johannesburg Declaration and 2030 Agenda, gradually reaffirmed the place of sustainable development as an important element of international agenda and broadened the meaning of the term.
Conclusions / findings: The role of business partner is present in 10% of the examined enterprises, with the source of capital and the entity size being of minor importance. Projects play a key role in the development of contemporary undertakings. Moreover, the primary role in terms of the implementation of any organizational activities is exercised by people. Thus, the opportunity emerges to implement and modify the concept of HR business partnering. This will lead to a greater professionalization of staffing, which will ultimately affect positively the implementation of strategy of the organizations under discussion.
Originality / value of the article: The publications on project management as well as those concerned with human resources management have so far not addressed the issue of the development of the HR business partner role in the organizations under discussion. The considerations, of both theoretical and practical nature, contribute to the theory of management, being much relevant owing to the ever growing popularity of the concept of management through projects.
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, UN Doc. A/CONF.151/26 (vol. I) / 31 ILM 874 (1992)
Agenda 21: Programme of Action for Sustainable Development, U.N. GAOR, 46th Sess., Agenda Item 21, UN Doc A/Conf.151/26
Anderson, J., W., Morgenstern, R., “The Future of Sustainable Development: The Johannesburg Conference and What Happens Next”, Resources for the Future, Issue Brief 03-06, July 2003
Bartlett, A., “Reflections on Sustainability, Population Growth, and the Environment” in Dorhrecht, S., The Future of Sustainability (2006)
Benton, T., The Greening of Machiavelli: The Evolutions of International Environmental Politics (1994)
Brundtland Report available at http://www.un-documents.net
Du Pisani, J., “Sustainable development – historical roots of the concept” (2006) Environmental Sciences, 3:2
Hickel, J., “The Problem with Saving the World. The UN’s new Sustainable Development Goals aim to save the world without transforming it.” Available at https://www.jacobinmag.com/2015/08/global-poverty-climate-change-sdgs/
Hicks, J., Value and capital: an inquiry into some fundamental principles of economic theory (1941)
Kenny, M., “Ecologism”, in Eccleshall, R., eds., Political ideologies: an introduction (1994)
Ki-Moon, B., Remarks of the United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon at Ministerial Meeting of the Least Developed Countries on 1 October 2015, New York. Full statement available at: http://www.un.org/sg/statements/index.asp?nid=9084
Malthus, T., First essay on population. (An essay on the principle of population as it affects the future improvement of society, with remarks on the speculations of Mr Godwin, M. Condorcet, and other writers) (1798)
Mebratu, D., “Sustainability and Sustainable development: historical and conceptual review” (1998) Environmental Impact Assessment Review 18
Moore, H., “Global prosperity and sustainable development goals” (2015) Journal of International Development, 27
Pearce, D., Markandya, A., Barbier, E., Blue Print for a Green Economy (1989)
Pearce, F., "Earth at the Mercy of National Interests– Fred Pearce reports from Rio de Janeiro on the final days of the Earth Summit", New Scientist, 20 June 1992
Peet, R., Hartwick, E., Theories of development. Second Edition: Contentions, Arguments, Alternatives (2009)
So, A., Social change and development. Modernization, dependency, and world-system theories (1990)
Strong, M., Statement by Maurice F., Secretary General United Nations Conference on Environment & Development at Plenary Meeting Closing the United Nations Conference on Environment & Development, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil 14 June 1992 available at http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-4.htm
The United Nations Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development, 4 September 2002, A/CONF.199/20
United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change, Adoption of Paris Agreement, FCCC/CP/2015/L.9, adopted on 12 December 2015
United Nations Millennium Declaration, Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly (55th sess. : 2000-2001), A/RES/55/2
United Nations Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015, A/RES/70/1
United Nations Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 27 July 2012, A/RES/66/288
Von Wright, G. H., “Progress: Fact and fiction”, in Burgen, A., McLaughhlin, P., Mittelstrab J, (eds) The idea of progress (1997)
The aim of CEREM is to make scientific work available in accordance with the principle of open access. The rules mentioned below are important, as they enable CEREM and its publisher, the WSB University in Wrocław, to distribute the scientific work to a wide public while complying with specific legal requirements, at the same time protecting the rights of the authors.
The author transfers to the WSB University in Wrocław, free of charge and without territorial limitations, with all proprietary copyrights to the said piece of work in the understanding of the act of 4th February 1994 on copyrights and derivative rights (Journal of Laws of 1994, no. 24, item 83, as amended) on an exclusivity basis, i.e. the rights to:
1. Make the piece of work in question available via the Digital Library established by the WSB University in Wrocław.
2. Produce, record and reproduce in multiple copies the piece of work using any techniques whatsoever, including printing, reprography, magnetic recording and digital processing, and particularly its reproduction by recording on CDs and similar data carriers,
3. Use fragments of the piece of work for promotional purposes in publications, promotional materials, the Internet and Intranet type networks managed by the WSB University in Wrocław.
4. Store the piece of work into computer databases managed by the WSB University in Wrocław.
5. Copy and reproduce the piece of work using photo-mechanic technologies other than those commonly known at the time of the signature hereof (photocopies, Xerox copies etc.),
6. Process the piece of work, transferring it into an electronic form, and distribute it on the Internet without limitations.