The concept of preventing negative consequences of work overload based on positive interactions between work and life, and promotion of workers’ healthy behaviors
Keywords:work overload, worker well-being, work-life balance, healthy behaviors, workplace health promotion, workplace health program, enterprises, corporate wellness
Aim: The main aim of this article is to identify negative health consequences resulting from work overload and lack of work-life balance, as well as to present characteristics of positive healthy behaviors in the workplace as counteracting strategies. The paper is a part of the discussion on the concept of corporate wellness which forms the basis for the development of organization’s health culture.
Design / Research methods: The paper is based on a review of literature concerned with the factors influencing worker welfare. Moreover, it presents two case studies on comprehensive health programs implemented by Mars Poland and the Belgian branch of Protect & Gamble.
Conclusions / findings: Based on the review of foreign and domestic literature, the authors propose a model describing the relationship between individual variables impacting worker welfare. In this model, it is assumed that the interaction between work and life, and workers’ healthy behaviors such as physical activity and rest after work (sleep) are crucial to workers’ regeneration.
Originality / value of the article: The value of the paper lies in the interdisciplinary approach to the development of worker well-being. Apart from the perspective of human resources management, the outlined concept also takes into account the issues relating to workers’ mental and physical health.
Implications of the research: The theoretical assumptions presented in the paper will become a starting point for a research project to be conducted on Polish enterprises. Its objective will be to identify the possibilities of counteracting the negative effects of workload congestion through the promotion of healthy behaviors in the workplace and support of workers in their creation of a positive work-life interaction.
ADP Workforce View in Europe 2015/16, 2015, www.adp.co.uk/assets/vfs///Family-32/WorkforceView-15-16/Workforce-View-UK-Screen-Final.pdf [31.12.2016].
Allis P., O’Driscoll, M., Positive effects of nonwork-to-work facilitation on well-being in work, family and personal domains, “Journal of Managerial Psychology” 2008, 23(3), s. 273–291.
Amendolia, C., Côté P., Cancelliere C., Cassidy J.D., Hartvigsen J., Boyle E., Soklaridis S., Stern P., Amick B., Healthy and productive workers: using intervention mapping to design a workplace health promotion and wellness program to improve presenteeism, “BMC Public Health” (2016) 16:1190
Badanie spójności społecznej, II edycja, GUS 2015, http://stat.gov.pl/obszary-tematyczne/warunki-zycia/dochody-wydatki-i-warunki-zycia-ludnosci/prezentacja-pierwszych-wynikow-ii-edycji-badania-spojnosci-spolecznej,22,1.html [31.12.16]
Ballout H. I., Work-family conflict and career success: the effects of domain-specific determinants, “Journal of Management Development” 2008, 27(5), s. 437–466.
Beham B., Drobnic, S., Satisfaction with work-family balance among German office workers, “Journal of Managerial Psychology” 2010, 25(6), s. 669–689.
Beutell N. J., Wittig-Berman U., Work-family conflict and work-family synergy for generation X, baby boomers, and matures: Generational differences, predictors, and satisfaction outcomes, “Journal of Managerial Psychology “2008, 23(5), s. 507–523.
Boyar S. L., Maertz C. P. J., Mosley D. C. J., Carr, J. C., The impact of work/family demand on work-family conflict, “Journal of Managerial Psychology” 2008, 23(3), s. 215–235.
Butler A. B., Grzywacz J. G., Bass B. L., Linney K. D., Extending the demands-control model: A daily diary study of job characteristics work-family conflict and work-family facilitation, “Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology” 2005, 78, s. 155-169.
Chu C., Breucker G., Harris N., Stitzel A., Gan X., Gu X., Dwyer S., Health-promoting workplaces—international settings development, “Health Promotion International “2000, 15(2), s.155-167.
Clark S. C., Work / family border theory : A new theory of work / family balance, “Human Relations” 2000, 53(6), s. 747–770.
DeJoy D, Southern D. An integrative perspective on worksite health promotion, “Journal of
Occupational and Environmental Medicine”, 1993, 35(12):1221-1230.
Dewe P., O’Driscoll M., Cooper C., (2010), Coping with stress: A review and critique, Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester.
Dewe P. & Cooper C., (2012), Well-being and work: Towards a balanced agenda, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.
Dewe P, (2014), Positive Psychology and Coping: Towards a better understanding of the relationship, w: Wellbeing: A Complete Reference Guide. (red.) P. Y. Chen, C. L. Cooper Vol. III, Work and Wellbeing, Wiley Blackwell, s. 65-90.
Dugdill L., Springelt J.: (2001), Evaluating health promotion programmes in the workplace, w: Rotman J., Goodstadt M., Hyndman B., McQueen D.U., Potwin L., Spingett J., Ziglio E. [red.]. Evaluation in health promotion. European Series, No. 92. WHO Regional Publications, Copenhagen.
Eby L. T., Casper W. J., Lockwood A., Bordeaux C., Brinley A., Work and family research in IO/OB: Content analysis and review of the literature (1980-2002), “Journal of Vocational Behavior “2005, 66(1), s. 124–197.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work – EU-OSHA 2014, Calculating the cost of
work-related stress and psychosocial risks: European Risk Observatory Literature Review https://osha.europa.eu/pl/tools-and-publications/publications/literature_reviews/calculating-the-cost-of-work-related-stress-and-psychosocial-risks [31.12.2016]
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, From the project to wellbeing policy, http://www.enwhp.org/toolbox/pdf/1002191223_Procter-Gamble.pdf [31.12.2016].
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Mars Wellness Programme, http://www.enwhp.org/toolbox/pdf/1002191140_Mars-Wellness-Programme.pdf [31.12.2016].
Gniazdowski A., (1997), Promocja zdrowia w miejscu pracy – teoria i zagadnienia praktyczne, Instytut Medycyny Pracy, Łódź,
Grant A. M., Christianson M. K., Price R. H., Happiness, Health, or Relationships? Managerial Practices and Employee Well-Being Tradeoffs, “Academy of Management Perspectives” 2007, 21(3), s. 51–63.
Greenhaus J. H., Beutell N. J., Sources of conflict between work and family roles, “Academy of Management Review” 1985, 10(1), s. 76–88.
Hakanen J. J., Schaufeli W. B., Ahola K., The Job Demands-Resources model: A three-year cross-lagged study of burnout, depression, commitment, and work engagement, “Work & Stress” 2008, 22(3), s. 224–241.
Higgins C., Duxbury L., Johnson, K. L., Part-time work for women: Does it really help balance work and family? “Human Resource Management” 2000, 39(1), s. 17–32.
Hughes J., Bozionelos N., Work-life balance as source of job dissatisfaction and withdrawal attitudes: An exploratory study on the views of male workers, “Personnel Review” 2007 , 36(1), s. 145–154.
Karasek R. A., Job Demands, Job Decision Latitude, and Mental Strain; Implications for Job Redesign, “Administrative Science Quarterly” 1979, 24(June), s. 285–308.
Karasek R. A., Baker D., Marxer F., Ahlbom A., Theorell T., Job decision latitude, job demands, and cardiovascular disease: a prospective study of Swedish men. “American Journal of Public Health” 1981, 71(7), s. 694–705.
Karasek R. A., Theorell T. (1990). Healthy work: stress, productivity, and the reconstruction of working life. Basic Books. Michigen: Harpes Collins Publishers.
Koh D. and Tar-Ching A. (2015), Occupational health, w: Oxford Texbook of Global Public Health, (red.) R. Detels, M. Gulliford, Q. Abdool Karim, Ch. Chuan Tan, Vol. 2 Methods of Public Health, Oxford University Press, Oxford, ss. 868-882.
Komunikat Komisji dla Parlamentu Europejskiego, Rady Europejskiego Komitetu Ekonomiczno-Społecznego i Komitetu Regionów, Podniesienie wydajności i jakości w pracy: wspólnotowa strategia na rzecz bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy na lata 2007-2012. Komisja Wspólnot Europejskich, Bruksela 2007, www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2009_2014/documents/empl/dv/com_com(2007)0062_/com_com(2007)0062_pl.pdf [31.12.2016]
Korzeniowska E.: Zdrowi pracownicy w zdrowej organizacji – Konferencja Europejskiej Sieci Promocji Zdrowia w Miejscu Pracy. „Medycyna Pracy”, 1999; 50: 6, 601–604.
Korzeniowska E., Puchalski K., Kwestionariusz oceny jakości programów promocji zdrowia w miejscu pracy, „Medycyna Pracy”, 2002; 53(5), s. 361—368.
Kossek E., Ozeki C., Work-Family Conflict, Policies, and the Job-Life Satisfaction Relationship: A Review and Directions for Organizational Behavior-Human Resources Research, “Journal of Applied Psychology” 1998, 83(2), s. 139–149.
La Montagne A. Integrating health promotion and health protection in the workplace. In: Moodie R, Hulme A, eds. Hands-on health promotion. Melbourne, Australia, IP Communications, 2004.
Lambert S. J., Added Benefits : the Link Between Work-Life Binefits and Organizational Citizenship Behavior, “Academy of Management Journal” 2000, 43(5), s. 801–816.
Lourel M., Ford M. T., Gamassou C. E., Guéguen N., Hartmann A., Negative and positive spillover between work and home: Relationship to perceived stress and job satisfaction, Journal of Managerial Psychology 2009, 24(5), s. 438–449.
Malińska M., Namysł A., Hildt-Ciupińska K., Promocja zdrowia w miejscu pracy – dobre praktyki cz. 2, Bezpieczeństwo Pracy 2012 , 07/2012, s. 18-21
Moore F., Work-life balance: contrasting managers and workers in an MNC, “Employee Relations” 2007, 29(4), s. 385–399.
Mościcka-Teske, A., Potocka, A. (2014), Skala Ryzyka Psychospołecznego. Budowa i zasady stosowania. Łódź-Gdańsk: Komisja Krajowa NSZZ Solidarność.
Nowak P. (2010), Aktywność fizyczna oraz inne zachowania zdrowotne w stylu życia menedżerów, Wyd. Politechniki Opolskiej, Opole.
O'Donnell MP, ed. Health promotion in the workplace, 3rd ed. Toronto, ON, Delmar Thomson Learning, 2002.
O’Driscoll M., Brough P., Kalliath T., Work / Family Conflict , Psychological Well-Being , Satisfaction and Social Support : A Longitudin. Equality, “Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal” 2004, 23(1/2), s. 36–56.
Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion: An Innternational Conference on Health Promotion. Charter for Health Promotion, Ottawa 1986.
Parish R., (1996), Quality of Health Promotion in the Workplace. W: Proceedings of the Workshop Quality of Health Promotion in the Workplace, 27–29 listopada 1996, Berlin, s. 53–63.
Pelfrene E., Vlerick P., Kittel F., Mak, R. P., Kornitzer, M., De Backer, G., Psychosocial work environment and psychological well-being: Assessment of the buffering effects in the job demand-control (-support) model in BELSTRESS, “Stress and Health” 2002, 18(1), s. 43–56.
Pelfrene E., Vlerick P., Mak R. P., De Smet P., Kornitzer M., De Backer G., Scale reliability and validity of the Karasek „Job Demand-Control-Support” model in the Belstress study, “Work & Stress” 2001, 15(4), s. 297–313.
Pelletier KR. A review and analysis of the clinical and cost-effectiveness studies of comprehensive health promotion and disease management programs at the worksite: 1998-2000 update, “American Journal of Health Promotion”, 2001, 16(2):107-116.
Pleck J. H., Staines G. L., Lang L., Conflicts between work and family life, “Monthly Labor Review” 1980, 103(3), s. 29–32.
Presseau J., Johnston M., Johnston D. W., Elovainio M., Hrisos S., Steen, N., Eccles M. P., Environmental and individual correlates of distress: Testing Karasek’s Demand-Control model in 99 primary care clinical environments, “British Journal of Health Psychology” 2014, 19(2), s. 292–310.
Quick J. C., Bennet J., Hargrove M. B., (2014), Stress, Health, and Wellbeing in Practice: Workplace Leadership and Leveraging Stress for Positive Outcomes, w: Wellbeing: A Complete Reference Guide. (red.) P. Y. Chen, C. L. Cooper Vol. III, Work and Wellbeing, Wiley Blackwell, s. 65-90.
Quintiliani L., Sattelmair J., Sorensen G., 2007, The workplace as a setting for interventions to improve diet and promote physical activity, Background paper prepared for the WHO/WEF Joint Event on Preventing Noncommunicable Diseases in the Workplace, World Health Organization, (Dalian/ China, September 2007), http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/Quintiliani-workplace-as-setting.pdf [31.12.2016]
Rotondo D. M., Kincaid, J. F., Conflict, facilitation, and individual coping styles across the work and family domains, “Journal of Managerial Psychology” 2008, 23(5), s. 484–506.
Saif M. I., Malik M. I., Awan M. Z., Employee Work Satisfaction and Work - Life Balance: A Pakistani Perspective, “Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business” 2011, 3(5), s. 606–617.
St Sorensen G, et al. A comprehensive worksite cancer prevention intervention: behavior change results from a randomized controlled trial (United States). Cancer Causes and Control, 2002, 13(493-502).
State of the global Workplace Report, Gallup (2013), www.securex.be/export/sites/default/.content/download-gallery/nl/brochures/Gallup-state-of-the-GlobalWorkplaceReport_20131.pdf [31.12.2016]
Stokols D, Pelletier K, Fielding J. The ecology of work and health: Research and policy directions for the promotion of employee health. Health Education Quarterly, 1996, 23(2):137-158.
Thompson C. A., Prottas, D. J., Relationships among organizational family support, job autonomy, perceived control, and employee well-being, “Journal of Occupational Health Psychology” 2006, 11(1), 100–18. http://doi.org/10.1037/1076-89188.8.131.52
Williams RM, Westmorland M. Perspectives on workplace disability management: a review of the literature. Work, 2002, 19(1):87-93.
Zagrożenia psychospołeczne i stress w pracy, Europejska Agencja Bezpieczeństwa i zdrowia w pracy, 2016, http://osha.europa.eu/pl/topics/stress/index_html [31.12.2016]
The aim of CEREM is to make scientific work available in accordance with the principle of open access. The rules mentioned below are important, as they enable CEREM and its publisher, the WSB Merito University in Wroclaw, to distribute the scientific work to a wide public while complying with specific legal requirements, at the same time protecting the rights of the authors.
The author transfers to the WSB Merito University in Wroclaw, free of charge and without territorial limitations, with all proprietary copyrights to the said piece of work in the understanding of the act of 4th February 1994 on copyrights and derivative rights (Journal of Laws of 1994, no. 24, item 83, as amended) on an exclusivity basis, i.e. the rights to:
1. Make the piece of work in question available via the Digital Library established by the WSB Merito University in Wroclaw.
2. Produce, record and reproduce in multiple copies the piece of work using any techniques whatsoever, including printing, reprography, magnetic recording and digital processing, and particularly its reproduction by recording on CDs and similar data carriers,
3. Use fragments of the piece of work for promotional purposes in publications, promotional materials, the Internet and Intranet type networks managed by the WSB Merito University in Wroclaw.
4. Store the piece of work into computer databases managed by the WSB Merito University in Wroclaw.
5. Copy and reproduce the piece of work using photo-mechanic technologies other than those commonly known at the time of the signature hereof (photocopies, Xerox copies etc.),
6. Process the piece of work, transferring it into an electronic form, and distribute it on the Internet without limitations.